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The information provided in this Resource Guide was developed by the National Eye Institute to help patients and their families search for general information about macular pucker. An eye care professional who has examined the patient's eyes and is familiar with his or her medical history is the best person to answer specific questions.
Epiretinal membrane, preretinal membrane, cellophane maculopathy, retina wrinkle, surface wrinkling retinopathy, premacular fibrosis, and internal limiting membrane disease.
A macular pucker is scar tissue that has formed on the eye's macula, located in the center of the eye's light-sensitive tissue called the retina. The macula provides the sharp, central vision we need for reading, driving, and seeing fine detail. A macular pucker can cause blurred and distorted central vision.
Most of the eye's interior is filled with vitreous, a gel-like substance that fills about 80 percent of the eye and helps it maintain a round shape. The vitreous contains millions of fine fibers that are attached to the surface of the retina. As we age, the vitreous slowly shrinks and pulls away from the retinal surface. This is called a vitreous detachment, and is normal. In most cases, there are no adverse effects, except for a small increase in floaters, which are little "cobwebs" or specks that seem to float about in your field of vision.
However, sometimes when the vitreous pulls away from the retina, there is microscopic damage to the retina's surface (Note: This is not a macular hole). When this happens, the retina begins a healing process to the damaged area and forms scar tissue, or an epiretinal membrane, on the surface of the retina. This scar tissue is firmly attached to the retina surface. When the scar tissue contracts, it causes the retina to wrinkle, or pucker, usually without any effect on central vision. However, if the scar tissue has formed over the macula, our sharp, central vision becomes blurred and distorted.
Most macular puckers are related to vitreous detachment, which usually occurs in people over age 50. As you age, you are at increased risk for macular pucker.
A macular pucker can also be triggered by certain eye diseases and disorders, such as a detached retina and inflammation of the eye (uveitis). Also, people with diabetes sometimes develop an eye disease called diabetic retinopathy, which can cause a macular pucker. A macular pucker can also be caused by trauma from either surgery or an eye injury.
Vision loss from a macular pucker can vary from no loss to severe loss, although severe vision loss is uncommon. People with a macular pucker may notice that their vision is blurry or mildly distorted, and straight lines can appear wavy. They may have difficulty in seeing fine detail and reading small print. There may be a gray area in the center of your vision, or perhaps even a blind spot.
No. A macular pucker and age-related macular degeneration are two separate and distinct conditions, although the symptoms for each are similar. An eye care professional will know the difference.
For most people, vision remains stable and does not get progressively worse. Usually macular pucker affects one eye, although it may affect the other eye later.
A macular pucker and a macular hole are different conditions, although they both result from the same reason: The pulling on the retina from a shrinking vitreous. When the "pulling" causes microscopic damage, the retina can heal itself; scar tissue, or a macular pucker, can be the result. If the shrinking vitreous pulls too hard, it can tear the retina, creating a macular hole, which is more serious. Both conditions have similar symptoms - distorted and blurred vision. Also, a macular pucker will not "develop" into a macular hole. An eye care professional will know the difference.
A macular pucker usually requires no treatment. In many cases, the symptoms of vision distortion and blurriness are mild, and no treatment is necessary. People usually adjust to the mild visual distortion, since it does not affect activities of daily life, such as reading and driving. Neither eye drops, medications, nor nutritional supplements will improve vision distorted from macular pucker. Sometimes the scar tissue--which causes a macular pucker--separates from the retina, and the macular pucker clears up.
Rarely, vision deteriorates to the point where it affects daily routine activities. However, when this happens, surgery may be recommended. This procedure is called a vitrectomy, in which the vitreous gel is removed to prevent it from pulling on the retina and replaced with a salt solution (Because the vitreous is mostly water, you will notice no change between the salt solution and the normal vitreous). Also, the scar tissue which causes the wrinkling is removed. A vitrectomy is usually performed under local anesthesia.
After the operation, you will need to wear an eye patch for a few days or weeks to protect the eye. You will also need to use medicated eye drops to protect against infection.
Surgery to repair a macular pucker is very delicate, and while vision improves in most cases, it does not usually return to normal. On average, about half of the vision lost from a macular pucker is restored; some people have significantly more vision restored, some less. In most cases, vision distortion is significantly reduced. Recovery of vision can take up to three months. Patients should talk with their eye care professional about whether treatment is appropriate.
The most common complication of a vitrectomy is an increase in the rate of cataract development. Cataract surgery may be needed within a few years after the vitrectomy. Other, less common complications are retinal detachment either during or after surgery, and infection after surgery. Also, the macular pucker may grow back, but this is rare.
Research studies are being conducted to determine other treatments for macular pucker. Please note that both of the procedures described below need additional clinical testing. We suggest you share this information with your eye care professional.
Some physicians are researching the use of a surgical procedure in which scar tissue is peeled off without performing the vitrectomy.
Other doctors are researching a new surgical technique to remove the internal limiting membrane (a layer of the retina) for patients with both macular pucker and macular hole. This surgical technique is called Fluidic Internal Limiting Membrane Separation (FILMS). After a vitrectomy, fluid is injected between the membrane and the retina that causes the membrane, along with the scar tissue, to lift away. It is then removed with forceps.
The following organizations may be able to provide additional information on macular pucker:
Association for Macular Diseases
210 E. 64th Street
New York, NY 10021
Offers education and information on macular disease through seminars, newsletters, and a hotline. Offers counseling to patients and their families.
(The) Foundation Fighting Blindness
Executive Plaza 1, Suite 800
11435 Cronhill Drive
Owings Mills, MD 21117-2220
(410) 363-7139 (TDD)
Acts as a clearinghouse and distributor of self-help program information. Sponsors research on the cause, prevention, and treatment of retinitis pigmentosa, Usher's syndrome, macular degeneration, and other retinal degenerative conditions. Conducts education programs for those affected by the disorders as well as professionals and the general public. Coordinates a national information and referral service and the Retinal Donor program. Publishes newsletters and other publications.
For additional information, you may wish to contact a local library.
Below is a sample of the citations available through MEDLINE/PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine. MEDLINE/PubMed provides access to over 11 million medical literature citations from 1966 to the present and includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. You can conduct your own free literature search by accessing MEDLINE through the Internet at http://medlineplus.nlm.nih.gov/hinfo.html. You can also get assistance with a literature search at a local library.
To obtain copies of any of the articles listed below, contact a local community, university, or medical library. If the library you visit does not have a copy of a desired article, you may usually obtain it through an inter-library loan.
Please keep in mind that articles in the medical literature are usually written in technical language. We encourage you to share any articles you order with a health care professional who can help you understand them.
Postoperative complications of epiretinal membrane surgery. Graham K, D'Amico DJ. Retina Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston 02114, USA. International Ophthalmology Clinics 40(1):215-223, Winter 2000.
Since the initial description by Machemer, surgical removal of an epiretinal membrane (ERM) in nondiabetic eyes has become a routine procedure after which the majority of patients experience visual improvement. Of patients undergoing ERM surgery, 74 percent to 87 percent can expect visual improvement of at least two lines on the Snellen chart. In general, surgical removal of ERMs that are idiopathic (no known cause) is more successful than removal of membranes that are secondary to retinal tears or detachments. Poor visual outcome from ERM surgery is most commonly due to cataract development, retinal breaks, and retinal detachments. Other postoperative complications include cystoid macular edema (CME), retinal phototoxicity, endophthalmitis, subretinal neovascularization, and recurrent ERMs. These complications should be considered when evaluating a patient with poor vision after ERM surgery.
Macular epiretinal membranes. Pournaras CJ, Donati G, Brazitikos PD, Kapetanios AD, Dereklis DL, Stangos NT. Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Seminars in Ophthalmology 15(2):100-107, June 2000.
Epiretinal membranes (ERM) are a common finding in older patients. Although they may be associated with numerous clinical conditions, most epiretinal membranes occur in the absence of ocular pathology (disease). Patients' symptoms range from asymptotic to complaints of severe vision loss and metamorphopsia (distortion). Pars plana vitrectomy has been found to be effective in removing ERM from the macula, improving the visual acuity and decreasing metamorphopsia. Both idiopathic and secondary ERMs do well after surgery, although secondary ERMs showed a greater amount of improvement than idiopathic ones. Complications are frequent including accelerated postoperative nuclear sclerosis (cataracts), retinal breaks and retinal detachment (RD), macular edema, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) changes, and, occasionally, macular hole and hypotony (low eye pressure). However, only RD involving the macula has a worsening prognosis on final outcome.
Epiretinal membranes. Jacobsen CH. School of Optometry, University of California-Berkeley. Optometry Clinics 5(1):77-94, 1996.
Epiretinal membranes are a common finding in older patients but are rare in young patients. Although they may be associated with other ocular conditions, most epiretinal membranes occur in the absence of ocular disease. Patient symptoms range from asymptomatic to complaints of severe vision loss and distortion. Epiretinal membranes are commonly classified according to their density and contractile characteristics. In this review, cellophane maculopathy refers to thin, glistening membrane, surface wrinkling maculopathy is characterized by fine, superficial retinal folds and macular pucker is associated with a dense, grayish-white membrane causing a characteristic pattern of severe retinal distortion. With sufficient visual disturbance, epiretinal membranes may be treated by pars plana posterior vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane peeling.
The National Eye Institute (NEI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is the Federal government's principal agency for conducting and supporting vision research. Inclusion of an item in this Information Resource Guide does not imply the endorsement of the NEI or the NIH.
This page was last modified in April 2005
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